0:13 thank you 0:20 [Music] 0:28 yes [Music] 0:40 [Music] after 1933 the speeches of adolf hitler could be heard throughout all of germany 0:47 he promised work to those without he spoke of strength and national pride he promised a better life in a better 0:54 germany he could stand and i mean [Music] 1:01 i mean he had the power in his speeches to move the masses 1:07 early in hitler's regime there was some opposition among the working class but soon they too were either supportive 1:13 or silent 1:23 it was sort of making a pact with the devil but not knowing where that it was the devil that you made the 1:28 pact with and where that would end up as the nazi police state tightened its 1:33 grip there was a struggling underground movement but relatively few organized resistance 1:39 groups in 1942 the white rose group led by college students hans and sophie scholl 1:44 disseminated anti-nazi leaflets in 1944 klaus von stauffenberg and other 1:50 military leaders made an unsuccessful attempt to assassinate hitler in an ill-fated bombing but before these 1:57 movements had emerged there was another resistance group forming in the port city of hamburg in 1941 a young man named helmut hubiner 2:06 led a resistance movement comprised of himself and two childhood friends from his church congregation 2:11 helmut hubenar was sixteen rudolf vobe was fifteen and carl heinz schnibby was seventeen 2:18 carl heinz is the last surviving member of the group 2:24 most people they have they have no idea how it was in nazi germany 2:29 how dangerous it was in nazi germany to tell the truth was a deadly luxury 2:35 my friend helmut thought that was his christian obligation to warn the people and tell him what 2:42 happens helmut was really smart not smart alecky 2:50 you know but bright he was a thinker he was uh the kind of person who was 2:57 interested in even as a young man in the big questions in life 3:03 i just didn't enjoy when when he uh talked to the elders in our in our church 3:08 he quick asked question he knew they don't know how to answer you know they he liked to embarrass them a little bit 3:14 i told him i said don't do that that is not nice you know you know he said i i got a kick out of 3:19 it i said hey don't do that the humor was intelligent but to over emphasize his intelligence 3:26 is i think a mistake i mean he was intelligent but he was not some kind of 3:31 remarkable genius on the level of wolfgang amadeus mozart who may never come along 3:38 again in the history of the earth he was a reasonably intelligent open 3:45 interesting and interested person but also to be politically sagacious at this age and at the same time 3:53 to be as well read in the scriptures to know theology as well 4:00 as he did there's an interesting wrinkle in the story it involves helmut having written a a 4:06 very strongly pro-hitler essay in school and reportedly having been quite happy 4:13 contented hitler youth and he was very well liked in the hitler use he did exactly what he had to do 4:20 apparently he enjoyed it and hamwood politically he he knew a lot you know he knew a lot and that 4:28 when we asked questions he hear the answers he had answers for us you know and i like that the light 4:35 sort of went on for him in in seeing how 4:42 the national socialist the gestapo treated jews and this experience 4:49 to my way of thinking is a central defining one for the young helmut my life actually 4:57 changed in november 1938. 5:03 we had the very infamous ice crystalnacht the night of broken glass 5:09 all over germany the jewish stores were destroyed the synagogues were burning and the 5:15 merchandise laid in the gutter when i came home my mother was upset she 5:21 said where have you been this is late my gosh you never came that late and and then i said oh mom it is terrible 5:27 and then i started crying and my mom said what happened so i told her i said why what what 5:33 what is wrong and my mom said to me this is from now on most likely our life so you 5:40 better forget it i could not forget it [Music] just before kristallnacht a new 5:46 religious leader a branch president was called in the congregation where hebner schniber 5:52 were members since joining the church of jesus christ of latter-day saints 12 years earlier arthur zonder had been a committed 5:58 member of this mormon branch he was also a strong supporter of the nazi party 6:04 not only was he the branch president but he was also so to speak the father of the ranch 6:12 he also wanted to do as much good as he could for the party 6:19 when i talked to my students about this case um at byu and the honors program and i tell them the story of the 6:25 uh the the hubner story and and they find out that there was a branch president who was a member of the nazi party they were pretty shocked and 6:32 and then i say wait a minute how shocked would you be to find out that your bishop is a republican or a democrat i 6:37 mean this was nazi germany there were nazis in nazi germany you know big surprise he wanted to show 6:43 that that latter-day saints were good germans and there was a tremendous 6:49 amount of pressure that was put on by the government and the party to quickly 6:54 separate those who are who are good germans and those who aren't he wanted to lock the doors so nobody 7:00 can get out and all the members had to listen to viewers speech and then he had in mind once to start 7:06 the meeting with hitler and there was another leader in our church otto bernd you know he was 7:12 his counselor he said no way this is not a political organization this is a church 7:18 it was then out to a sunday bit on granted when it came to my father 7:25 because my father was not at all for this salute and hit the speeches and 7:31 lock in the doors and so forth my friend helmut he was the honorary secretary from our 7:37 branch president he got very upset he got very upset 7:43 final straw for helmut may have been his view that nazi ideas 7:52 and nazi behavior was coming over into the latter day saints we went to 7:59 church to our church house and there was a sign on the door which read yoon is that such 8:05 jews not allowed to enter and we had one jewish member in our branch solomon schwartz 8:10 you know and they didn't let that young man in he stood outside the door and when we opened up this opening him he 8:16 was crying but they didn't let him in the other branch houses generally did not have this apparently 8:23 this was unique in germany at the time among lds branches that someone had put a sign up 8:29 like that i believe sandra and put that up there partly as an expression 8:34 of his support for the regime and partly to communicate that latter-day saints 8:41 were good citizens in the third reich 8:46 and partly perhaps to protect his own 8:52 flock september 1st 1939 the same day that hitler invaded poland he enacted a law 8:59 that restricted listening to any radio broadcasts other than the approved party stations 9:04 propaganda minister joseph goebbels increased his efforts to control what information the german 9:10 people received those caught listening to foreign broadcasts could be sentenced to death 9:16 any group of politicians or government leaders who place enormous emphasis on propaganda by 9:24 their own government are inevitably afraid of the propaganda of other governments and this is partly helps to explain why 9:31 goebbels was so sensitive to the foreign broadcasts and why it made listening to them illegal so you have to realize in germany we had 9:37 what we call the foxenfinger the people's radio and you could only hear three stations visit hammock munich and berlin 9:44 so we had to believe what they tell us now there was still a lot of illegal sets around the place which the gestapo tried 9:51 to round up but often soldiers would bring radios back with them on leave 9:58 after the french army was defeated hamul's brother 10:03 came home on furley and he bought home a little shortwave radio marquerola there was a 10:10 little bit wrong with it and hamwood had it fixed you know and then his brother left back to his unit 10:16 helmut one night ten o'clock a few minutes before turned it on 10:22 he's played with the scala and there was a little lot of whistling and you know how it goes and then he had it ten o'clock sharp the 10:29 first three bars from beethoven three times you know victory three times and then a 10:36 a voice and flew in german said this is bbc london 10:42 this is bbc london now we give news in the german language when he got this shortwave radio he 10:49 realized that he had a chance now to hear information that wasn't from the 10:55 government and as he listens to bbc 11:01 he is immediately convinced that they're telling the truth and the thing that he says convinced him 11:07 that the english were right and the germans were wrong about what they were saying on the news was that the british provided much more 11:13 detail the bbc built up a reputation for timeliness accuracy credibility and therefore the news 11:21 would have a greater degree of credibility over the german news system so helmet began to be 11:27 converted and i think it happened very fast to the idea that there was really something here that he had to share with 11:32 his fellow germans and my friend helmut told me that sunday when i saw him in church again 11:37 you have to come and listen to this this is very fascinating i said what is it he said i cannot tell you 11:43 exactly details come and see me so i said okay i'll be there 11:49 helmut had moved into his grandparents apartment his mother was working nights 11:54 he didn't get along with his stepfather who was a nazi his grandparents house just around the corner not very far away they're 12:00 old people they go to bed early so i'm assuming it was a logical thing to ask carl had come over 12:06 and that was the first time i've heard it i was flabbergasted i said what 12:11 how do they know you know i didn't believe it and then he said look germany i don't 12:18 know how many how many hundreds of armies they have you know and then he proved to me on hand from statistics how much 12:25 gasoline one army needs a day tanks airplanes and 12:30 trucks and other stuff and he said it had no oil fields he needs he cannot make it you know and that's 12:37 how it started but i never lost the fear i was always scared every day in the newspaper 12:43 schwarzer and they call it you know that people were arrested by the gestapo 12:49 for a listen bbc london and that was very dangerous very dangerous 12:54 because people don't keep their mouth shut they said to them formula you know what i've heard i tell 13:00 you and then you know and they don't want to avoid that so i was scared to death but i was nosy enough to wonder no more 13:12 did helmut ever think about getting caught and what would that mean towards the neighbors and and towards 13:18 the other members of the church i don't know the church family 13:23 was truly a family as far as the nazis were concerned and they had something which they called 13:29 zippenhoft and it meant that if if you have some member of your family 13:36 who is going against the law that that they can arrest your whole family 13:42 in this oppressive climate religions throughout germany struggled to find the balance in supporting the nazi 13:48 government while upholding their christian values again and again they were faced with the question 13:53 can we be loyal to hitler and at the same time loyal to god though the answer to this question 13:59 varied within the different denominations everyone knew the ominous consequences of religious objection to 14:04 the regime so the complexity that is found 14:13 in every mormon branch is largely a reflection of this delicate 14:19 balancing act of being good citizens while at the same time 14:25 doing all we can personally to bring about the god-given human rights that belong 14:32 to all people and so forth for helmut the issue was am i not raised to tell the truth and to 14:41 to pass on the truth and so i think this became a a very 14:48 important issue for him to to tell people what was really happening what he knew and the final link in the chain would 14:55 have been the fact that he was a kind of unofficial secretary to the branch president arthur sander 15:01 who would ask him to write letters to the soldiers from the branch and so he assigned young helmut who was 15:08 who knew how to type and was very verbal to write these letters and helmut agreed 15:13 to he first took home a portable typewriter and later took home a big desk typewriter so it was clearly the 15:19 church typewriter got taken to helmut's apartment and helmwood used that typewriter in his 15:25 home to try to learn for leaflets sometimes with eight carbon count you know hammer really through the paper he got 15:33 from from his office government paper and then would have a little stem from his office you know the swastika was the 15:39 eagle and he used that on leaflets stamped it as official nazi party paper 15:45 and put it on the blackboard 15:53 but with the typewriter and access to paper as well and the radio broadcasts and the silence 15:59 of his grandmother's apartment at night so he could stay up as late as he wanted to typing away and listening to the broadcast 16:04 he really had all the ingredients now for helmut to do this thing and the next thing was for him to 16:10 recruit a couple of his friends one time in church helmut said 16:16 come next week a little next week a little early i have a i have another surprise for you i said hey i don't know your surprises 16:23 there i don't like your surprises they are dangerous he said no come down and so i went down 16:28 there and i said what's the surprise he said just sit down and then he opened the door and there comes my friend rudy who does 16:36 and i said rudy what are you doing here and he laughed he said carter what are you doing here and then 16:41 helmut told me he is the third in our group i said what do you mean the third who is 16:47 the second now you i said helmut i don't know i was 16:52 scared i was actually scared because we read in the newspaper every day how severely these people get punished 16:59 the nazis they don't want you to know the truth you know the truth was deadly and in germany 17:16 foreign it's ironic that hubiner's vision for this as i see it 17:23 corresponded with the nazi's fear that his vision might in fact work that that this mass grassroots uprising 17:32 might occur their fears were consonant with his hopes helmut said well we have to be careful 17:38 then everything is well you know and then he said let's make a promise he who get caught first takes the blame 17:43 don't incriminate anybody and that sounds good to me because i thought i'm cool i was the oldest you 17:49 know i said they don't catch me so i said all right so rudy went that night home with 17:56 about 15 flyers you know there were postcard sites and 18:01 helmut typed on it hitler the murderer hitler is the guildivan if you are a friend of the 18:07 truce and you have a short wave dial and then he give him the name from the station in london the first thing we see is that 18:14 he's emerged from some kind of a process as a full-blown anti-nazi 18:19 writing things that are you know very personally uh demeaning to hitler hitler is a murderer 18:25 hitler is the fairfield or the folks fairfield he puts the prefix ver on the front of 18:30 the word furor which means that hitler is now not the leader of the people but the seducer of the people and his 18:37 thinking was gee if it's a matter of lack of information then if i spread this information to 18:43 others it'll click in them and there'll be this title wave of 18:49 information flow and things will click and there'll be a chain reaction 19:09 so he gave me about seven he said what do you want me to do visit he said get rid of him i said okay where is your toilet he said 19:16 do you know what i mean he said don't be difficult and i i was i i i didn't feel good at all you know 19:23 but i got rid of him i put him in telephone booths i put him in mail boxes 19:30 but i came home i was so nervous my mother said you don't look so good i said i don't feel good mom she said 19:35 you better go to bed right now so i did but the next morning it the world looked 19:41 okay again i didn't get caught and everything went okay at that age you 19:47 probably don't don't realize all the consequences of your actions you just want to do it you know you have 19:54 that drive you you want to tell the the the neighbors the the people around 19:59 you well what we hear on the propaganda isn't all true the following sunday in church i think it was on only thirsty or 20:05 something he saw me coming and he waved at me and i waved back and he yelled to the church 20:11 they haven't arrested you yet half day and i said will you shut up i was 20:18 you know so that was hamwood joking you know there's a kind of an adventure and there's a sense of 20:24 of rightness about what they're doing that i think keeps them a little bit 20:30 from thinking say are we going to get ourselves into some serious trouble 20:35 and maybe some other people along with us in the meantime hamwood had full size leaflets 20:43 no flyers anymore the big leaflets and he used the british broadcast and his own knowledge 20:49 and made these leaflets and they were we had about 29 different titles and and pretty soon 20:55 he's giving us more and more information uh combined with the slander and the 21:00 slurs against hitler's person there is now evidence and reasoning behind it and he's saying this is why 21:06 hitler's a murderer because he's done this and and this is why these guys are lying to you because 21:12 they've said this and in fact this is the truth but helmut was not so naive to believe that people in the nazi party 21:18 on their knees no helm would want to make the people think 21:24 my favorite is the one where the the long doggerel palm it's a very witty thing he ends it with 21:29 a schiller quotation from a famous play wilhelm tell but he also quotes a very 21:35 brief quote from hamlet from shakespeare's hamlet so he's throwing out some erudition here in these later pamphlets 21:43 having some fun with them and another one the voice of conscience that was a religious leaflet 21:49 where helmut proved and according to the bible and what happens that i meant like hitler cannot 21:54 win the war it's impossible there's some evidence that they were created by a teenager very enthusiastic 22:00 and bombastic things but but they impressed the germans at the time they impressed the gestapo 22:05 these are not the writings of a typical teenager but could have been the writings of a 30 year old university 22:10 professor 22:28 one time i was almost home there's still two policemen and they said hey come over here so i 22:35 went over there he said where have you been this late i said i visit my friend where does he live 22:40 and i didn't give him with us i had him if another friend across the street and the eliza strasse and i told him and 22:47 he left that truth so that would no problem he said well you better go home tonight they might come it's a clear 22:54 night he meant the british you know air it i said yeah i will and was 22:59 i glad that i could i was really scared to death i was like let's get to this i made it a habit never take a leaflet 23:06 home to our place if i didn't get rid of all of them i burned them i always had a book of matches in my pocket 23:12 i burned them so there was nothing in our house from all the leaflets we distribute 23:20 about eight or nine got turned into the police no more you know so but the gustavo knew 23:28 there is some group does have work in there you know and in 23:33 this section where him would live but they don't know exactly where to start you know they was 23:38 just hoping for a lucky day and they got their lucky day one time my friend helen wood told me 23:44 how would you feel if we print some leaflets into french 23:50 because we have some french we have we have a lot of this french prisoner of war in hamburg and they 23:55 are entitled to know the truth too i said hey first of all you don't speak french and second that's too dangerous leave it 24:02 alone don't don't try it and helmut said no we have a young man in our 24:08 office staff his name is verna khans he speaks fluently french i will ask him 24:13 it's possible that helmholt had some grandiose plan in mind to get all these french prisoners of war you know to rise up but 24:21 i think it's more likely he was simply using this as an excuse to talk to crons about it he approached vernacans 24:27 and says werner he said will you do me a favor sure what can i do and he said i 24:32 i'd like to have something sensitive into friends he said okay give it to me and he gave him one of the leaflets you know 24:39 and that young man read it and the more he read the matter he get he gave it back to him like there's 24:44 nowhere he said are you nuts you know what that is this is stevetismus no he said i want 24:50 nothing to do with it you know okay so this little conversation was watched in the corner there was a glass booth 24:57 where the party observer from the office staff had his little office in there he had to 25:04 watch out for patriotism among the office workers because it was a government office 25:10 and he started conversation so he said verna come here i want to talk to you and he went in and he said what what was 25:16 that all this was human and he said oh i took care of it forget it it's okay he said no i want to know 25:23 he said now i don't worry about it and then he said i order you to tell me he could i mean he 25:29 was a big man in nazi party he said i order you to tell me so he told him and he said this and this 25:34 happened and and i'm i don't want nothing to do with it and heinrich moans was his name he said oh 25:41 i'm interested this is interesting i never saw anything like that tell him you do 25:46 it and let me read one too you know and he said okay so verna crunch went back to helmut and said i 25:53 changed my mind i will do it i don't know if him would had a little warning and he said well 26:01 i bring you one whereas the one you had let's destroy it you know so and then ham would let this young man wait for about five six days 26:09 and then he bought him one this young man didn't even read it he bought it right away to mr moans 26:15 you know and mr moans got it and while he was reading this he kept the telephone and dialed the gestapo 26:21 you know i think he stopped was there 10 minutes later it was 5 p.m on february 5th when the 26:29 gestapo arrested hubiner at his work they took him immediately to his grandparents apartment where he was 26:34 living at the time there they found the illegal radio several flyers and the typewriter with an unfinished 26:41 flyer still in it 26:46 he was then taken to the gestapo headquarters in hamburg here the interrogations began as the 26:52 gestapo tried to ascertain who else was involved in the conspiracy 26:57 you know one sunday i went to church helmut wasn't there so i thought maybe he's sick or something you 27:03 know and then our branch president said brothers and sisters please stay on 27:08 after our meeting i have a sad announcement to make and when we wait for him he came and then he 27:14 said i got a phone call from the gestapo and our young brother and 27:20 friend helmut hubena was arrested he said i had i don't have details but i 27:25 know it is politically you know and the same moment my mom turned to me and said 27:31 what happens i said i don't know that was the first time i had to lie to my mother and i 27:36 it it bothered me it bothered me and i said mom i don't know she said oh come on justin you've been there three 27:42 times a week you must know i said i really don't then she looked at me like can i believe 27:49 you i said honestly she said well then it's probably not so bad and he probably comes home and and it's 27:55 it's okay but i know better you know i thought oh my gosh you know i hope i hope that hamwood kept his 28:03 promise as one reads the the accounts of the interrogation which thanks to 28:09 typical german efficiency have been preserved for us to read one gets goosebumps because one realizes 28:18 that much of the language one is reading is euphemistic it will say in one of these documents 28:24 helmut hubener was today brought forward and interrogated by our commissioner bengamon and after 28:31 assiduous persuasion he admitted having distributed the 28:37 documents now a term like assiduous persuasion can only mean after we beat the heck out 28:44 of him after we tortured him after we worked him over pretty good when i came home i was prepared usually 28:51 the gestapo comes four and five o'clock in the morning because they know 28:57 everybody is home so when i came home from church i thought that as that black mercedes and picks me up 29:04 there was no mercedes you know so next morning i woke up i 29:09 have no gestapo pretty clear to me that that he was treated badly uh and and 29:16 very badly uh battered around and beaten and so it's no wonder that at a certain point helmut uh says to them that he 29:24 had invited two friends carl and rudy over february 10th i went to work again there 29:31 was a knock on the door boom boom and i said to my fellow worker i said really 29:36 really fabric is his name i said really i get it he said okay so he went in the room and sit down and start eating you know 29:43 i opened the door and there's the two guys about six four six three tall with that 29:50 long dark leather coat and he lifted up his lapel from the court and there was the badge stats police 29:59 stopper he said are you carl schnibby kalhan schnibby i said yes i am 30:04 he said you know why we are here [Music] i said yes i do i had said who me 30:11 no no idea i would get it right away you just had to look at these guys i mean they had feet that big and hands 30:17 like a toilet seat i mean they they use it they know how to use it we heard story enough how brutal and and 30:25 me [ __ ] stopper was i said yes i know he said come visit us i said can i change clothes i had my 30:31 white son he said you come as you are i said okay so i yelled to billy i said really i 30:37 i have to leave for a minute he said okay okay leave for a minute seven years 30:44 and then they drove me downtown to start house where they could stop a headquarters and 30:50 there the interrogation started he the first question he asked did you 30:56 listen to bbc london i said yes i did he said hum how often i said oh maybe three four 31:02 times you're a lion your friend told us many many more i said that's not true 31:07 then he is lying and i thought oh my god i hope i get away with this if ham would give in and i lied to them i wouldn't 31:14 sit here they would have killed me the same day you know and then they said they asked that you 31:20 see some leaflets i said yes i i knew about the leaflets then he asked me do you know rudolf vobby 31:25 then i knew they have woody too you know then the question came give us names who are the adults behind 31:32 you i said there are no adults and that triggered it and i got hit 31:37 you know they could not believe that three young men did this 31:45 organization this resistant group without any help of adults they could not believe it 31:52 they thought we are just little fishes they want the big they thought they have a big spiraling now wonderful there were no 31:58 adults the gestapo was absolutely certain that all that these pamphlets 32:07 that were written had to have been done and orchestrated by an adult and they 32:14 were sure that otto barant was the person behind it he was their guest they called it 32:21 for three days and three nights and he told us and he told us this after the 32:29 war was over when they fired questions at me i mean 32:34 he said they came like a machine gun salva okay they came quick fast meant to make sure to 32:41 irritate him and to say the wrong thing what he said just a minute before and he said something took over for me 32:53 and they i repeated the same thing again and again and again 33:02 and they finally after three days they realized that he knew nothing of what had happened 33:10 with these three young men they said mr byrne you are free to go and he said 33:15 do you believe me now that i didn't have anything into it didn't know anything about it and then they said if we had the 33:23 smallest doubt you wouldn't leave this building alive and then they said now remember he said 33:28 we have to win the war then we have to serve we have to solve the jewish problem he 33:34 said and then your moments are next he said there is no more room in the new germany 33:42 for this american church apparently he said the right things and 33:48 the nazis never did pursue the church connection behind humanoid they were unable to find 33:53 that source uh bert said the right things uh saunder was clearly on their side and 33:59 the trail ended with hubiner word of the arrest spread quickly 34:04 through the mormon community in hamburg the reactions were varied some were troubled by what had happened and 34:10 worried for the boy's safety others felt they had broken the law betrayed their country and deserved whatever punishment they 34:17 received but a feeling common to all was quiet concern what would happen to the rest of the 34:23 mormon community now not only in hamburg but in all of germany ten days after 34:29 humoner's arrest arthur zander along with another local church leader anton hook 34:34 excommunicated humoner from the mormon church i believe that both sander and anton 34:41 hoop believed this implicitly that it was very necessary for them to distance 34:47 themselves from this young man and to say with with this act as 34:55 as serious as it is how the church felt about what he had done ironically 35:03 this might have been helpful in terms of pure survival for the branch because when people came 35:10 uh plainclothesmen and other kinds of spies came to the branch to find out if there was a connection between what 35:16 hubiner had done and and what was being taught in this mormon branch apparently they found nothing of this 35:24 of the kind they found a very loyal party supporter in the in sunder the ranch president they found people 35:31 condemning hubenar for what he'd done saying that it was out of line and for all practical purposes nothing 35:38 happened to the branch or the or the members of the branch or the church in hamburg or and in germany generally 35:47 immediately after the war was over and this case was reviewed 35:54 it became clear that he had not in fact been properly excommunicated and 36:00 everything connected with his membership was restored and so that tells us about how the 36:09 official church felt on this matter 36:15 for several weeks following their arrest huebner schniber and volba were interrogated at the gestapo headquarters 36:23 each night they were held at the gestapo prison outside of hamburg where the torture and beatings continued 36:29 when they stopped at the gestapo prison festival and we got out i had no idea that you have to face the 36:35 wall about two inches with your nose from the wall i didn't know that 36:40 but i learned fast then came in as s men by your stomper man and he i don't know 36:46 he probably had a bad day so he pushed my head against the wall you know and that bust my nose 36:52 so the whole wall was bloody they punished me for messing up the wall 36:58 you picked what did you do with our clean walls and oh my gosh you know and i thought what's going on i had no 37:04 idea and needless to say i couldn't sleep the whole night you know that was so noisy 37:09 there i've heard men cry and scream women cry and scream and you could hear when they when they 37:15 got hit it was terrible it was terrible try to imagine 37:20 what it would have been like for young children who'd never been away from home who'd been 37:26 raised in lds families in protected circumstances really to 37:32 suddenly have been arrested by the gestapo put in prison cells and taken 37:38 daily to the interrogation center run by the gestapo where they were held 37:44 in this famous hall of mirrors with a bright white paint and then taken off to side rooms to be interrogated 37:52 there was a big big room i mean it was a large room and we called it the spiegels are the hall of mirrors it 37:58 was high glass brilliantly white we enameled searchlights all over and 38:04 you came in there you go like you know it blinds you a little bit and they tell you over there on the wall 38:10 you could not go cross you have to go all around and then face the wall and stand there 38:15 if you were lucky they could stop for culture and after an hour half an hour two hours 38:21 if not you stand there the whole day one time the gestapo made a mistake 38:27 when they let me in in the hall of mirror and said over there i had to go around to there there's 38:33 helmut and that should never happened they called it for dongling 38:39 i should never see him before trial you know somebody made a mistake so when i walked 38:44 by ham would saw me coming from the corner of his eyes and when i walked by him i slowed down a 38:50 little bit not much so that wasn't suspicious i saw he had a little grin on his face 38:56 and then i knew helmut kept his word 39:01 once the gestapo were satisfied that in fact there were no adults behind the hubena group the boys were transferred to an 39:07 investigative prison in the center of hamburg to await their trial 39:13 it was so quiet i said i'm on vacation i thought that was the first night i slept 39:20 i had no idea that for the next five months this is my home nobody to talk to nothing to read i 39:27 couldn't lay during the day on the bunker to sit on that little wobbly chair you start talking to 39:33 yourself that's okay but when you answer then then you've had it you know 39:39 it was terrible for five months one time they sell open and they served 39:44 papers to us and was stamped all over secret top secret so when i've read that 39:49 i didn't give five cents for none of our lives i said this is the endicolous 39:54 we will be tried for high treason and aiding and debating the enemy 40:02 in august of 1942 the hubena group was transported to berlin by train 40:08 here they would stand trial before the highest court in germany where the judges had been selected personally by 40:14 hitler officially it was called the people's court though the people often referred 40:19 to it as the blood tribunal the first one who got called to the high bench was my friend helmut 40:24 and they told him his crime and then they asked him with young men do you honestly believe that germany 40:31 will lose the war and hamwood said don't you the judges said leave him a lot and 40:37 leave him or not then they ask do you want to tell me that the german broadcast is 40:42 wrong and the english is correct and he said exactly his attorney he looked at him and said 40:48 are you nuts but i think helmut knew that he is his life is gone after short 40:55 deliberations the judges returned their verdict rudolph voba 10 years in a labor camp 41:01 carl heinz schnibbett five years in a labor camp and for helmut hubner the sentence was 41:07 death [Music] and then they asked us if we want to 41:13 have what to say rudy declined i declined you know and hamwood said yes i do and then 41:20 the judge said okay so then said i have to die now for no crime at all 41:30 he said but your turn is next 17 years old 41:39 so after sentencing they let us down to the basement there was another big room like a prison 41:45 with iron bars then we got our supper and our friend helmholt they kept his cuff 41:54 on his back so rory and ivy fed hermods we broke the bed and fed them you know 42:01 i said hamlet they won't kill you i mean i had my doubts but what can i say this is it you cannot do that you know i 42:07 said hey what they won't kill you too young he said oh yes they killed me i said no don't talk like that that 42:12 it hurts me he said look at the wall back then i turned around there was a big wall and i was all 42:18 scribbled so i walked over there where all the linkmans who got killed 42:24 that red farewell my love goodbye mom and i mean every little bit it was it 42:31 was shocking it was shocking you know and i i still couldn't i said hey would know they they will not kill you and 42:37 then we've had him you know and then all of a sudden the gate opened the big iron gate and 42:43 god came in and said bobby schnebby pack your things you're going back to hamburg so we had to leave you 42:49 know now i have to say goodbye to our friend helmut helmut had big blue eyes i mean really 42:56 big dark blue eyes and i never saw him with emotionally you know he never showed his 43:03 emotion even when something happened and when i put my arms around him i told 43:08 him what i see pretty soon his eyes filled with tears [Music] 43:15 and he said to me i hope you have a better life in a 43:21 better germany and then he cried 43:32 [Applause] [Music] 43:55 in that cell they locked me in that wasn't very far from the prison church that night somebody played 44:02 the org in there and i couldn't i could hear it very well and then i broke down and i cried and i thought 44:10 won't this ever end and that was just the beginning that was just the beginning 44:16 the following day schniber and volvo were sent to a hard labor prison camp outside of hamburg called glossmore 44:22 hubiner was held at plitzen's a prison in berlin while his family appealed his death sentence huebner waited 44:30 at 12 noon on october 27th the prison warden and others came to huberner's cell 44:35 and informed him that his appeal for clemency had been denied by hitler himself and that he would be executed after 44:41 eight o'clock that night he was granted permission to write three letters one to his mother 44:46 one to his grandparents and one to his close friends from church the sommerfeld family the letters to his 44:53 mother and grandparents were destroyed during a bombing raid in 1943 the letter to the sommerfeld survived 45:01 when we first read it i mean we opened it and we saw you know at the end you could see 45:08 the ink it was a little blotted out because he must have shed some tears because he knew that was 45:15 the end of his life on this earth dear sister summerfield and family 45:21 when you receive this letter i will be dead but before my execution i have been 45:27 granted one wish to write three letters to my loved ones 45:32 i want to thank you for the letter you sent to me dear sister summerfield 45:37 which they withheld from me i also want to thank you for the many happy hours 45:43 i was able to spend in the circle of your family please remember me kindly 45:51 i'm very thankful to my heavenly father that this agonizing life is coming to an 45:58 end this evening i could not stand it any longer anyway 46:11 my father in heaven knows that i have done nothing wrong i know that god lives and he will be the 46:19 proper judge of this matter until a happy union and that better 46:26 world i remain your friend and brother in the gospel helmut 46:35 this last letter doesn't say i'm sorry i broke the law i'm sorry i impugned the reputation of 46:41 our fearless leader adolf hitler none of that it's very pure very straightforward very moving and 46:49 simple but the theological argument is very strong because he realizes he was 46:54 within a few hours of meeting his maker but it's amazing how calm he is 47:00 and how quiet in his conscience he appears to be 47:05 detailed records were kept of hubiner's last day that have provided a precise account of the proceedings just after 8 pm 47:13 huberner was taken from his cell his hands bound with rope he was led from his cell block to the 47:19 prison tool shed which had been converted into an execution chamber 47:29 at 8 13 he entered the chamber the room was divided in half by a black 47:36 curtain the director of executions read the death sentence 47:42 and the curtain was opened revealing the guillotine 47:49 the time from when humoner was brought into the room until his death 18 seconds 48:01 the following day october 28th notices of huberner's death were posted in hamburg 48:07 this is when helmut's mother emma heubner learned her son was dead it was her birthday 48:16 after the fall of the third reich war-torn germany struggled to rebuild but with their efforts to look to the 48:22 future most of the german people were anxious to bury the past the activities of helmut carl heinz and 48:28 rudy were quickly fading from memory except to those closest to them but those closest to hubiner his mother 48:34 and grandparents were killed in the 1943 bombings of hamburg many members of the mormon branch began 48:41 immigrating to the united states after the war had ended rudy voba returned home from prison in june of nineteen forty five 48:48 carl heinz though still a political prisoner was forced to march with the german army just weeks before the war 48:54 ended and was captured by the russian forces he was a prisoner of war in russia for four more years both carl 49:02 and rudy immigrated to the united states in the early 50s by the late 50s the humane group was 49:08 virtually forgotten in germany in 1960 a young college student named 49:14 ulrich zander was given the assignment to write on the resistance movement in hamburg in his research he discovered the 49:21 account of three teenage boys about his age who spoke out against the hitler regime nearly 20 years after posting its last 49:28 flyer the huberner group had been rediscovered alisander was about the same age as as 49:34 hubert and his colleagues had been so it was an exciting thing for a teenager to discover that other hamburg teenagers 49:41 had been operating of a successful resistance movement against hitler 49:56 in mind [Music] 50:17 one of the articles that zonder wrote was read by celebrated german author gunter grass the huberner group's 50:23 peaceful resistance became a focal point of gross's forthcoming novel local anesthetic published in 1969 51:23 [Music] 51:48 [Music] 51:53 after gunther grass's novel was published awareness of the humaner group increased helmut hubenar and his friends were 52:00 officially recognized as resistance fighters against the third right today there are memorials throughout 52:06 hamburg and berlin that commemorate the resistance efforts of the hubenar group 52:13 when hitler was gone it was all gone you don't find any streets named after 52:20 hitler you don't find anything named after any of his henchmen 52:26 and instead of a thousand year reich you had a crime that will take a 52:32 thousand years to erase the deutsche fascism 52:40 [Music] from the hellmuth 52:47 [Music] these people provided then 52:52 the moral soil for the rebirth of germany 53:00 even though the germans did not succeed in overthrowing hitler 53:05 there were enough germans who really tried to do something about it and paid 53:11 for it with their own lives you often ask yourself how would i have reacted knowing the 53:18 punishments involved and i think that each individual should be judged on his or her own merits in terms of the amount of 53:25 resistance they conducted and i think they all have one thing in common they were all extraordinary courageous people 53:39 because 53:46 my students who are very close to the age of helmut huberner uh and who often i think despair of 53:54 making a contribution in this world because it's a very big world with very complicated problems i believe 54:01 take courage when they encounter helmand hewner naturally 54:08 [Music] 54:23 and his and people like him are key figures to the development of this new peaceful 54:28 post-war german society i i see it as a very very important link 54:33 in the transition from a nazi society to what i see today as one of the most peaceful societies the world has ever 54:40 seen i came home in 49 one saturday my mom 54:47 said tomorrow we go in the organ concert and there they played cesar frank 54:52 love it mendelssohn beautiful i mean all the jewish composers they were 54:58 forbidden in hitler germany and then it happened right during the concert i broke down i started crying 55:05 and i cried and i cried after that the healing started very fast you know 55:11 it was a long long hard road but i made it 55:16 [Music] i don't think young people today can really understand 55:21 what it was like in nazi germany people were forced to make difficult decisions 55:27 based on what information they had for many of us it was the time when patriotism and 55:34 faith were odds it was a time when truth was treason 55:40 helmut spoke for freedom in the best way he knew how i don't regret what we did but i don't 55:47 blame those who didn't agree with our actions i guess i feel what helmholtz said is 55:54 true god will be the proper judge of this 56:00 matter 56:09 in 1985 carl heinz schnibber and rudolph voba were invited by the german government 56:14 to a ceremony where they were honored for their achievements as resistance fighters in 1992 rudy died of cancer at the age 56:22 of 65. carl heinz lives in salt lake city utah and continues to speak to students 56:29 and other organizations about his 56:38 [Music] experiences 56:49 [Music] 56:56 [Music] 57:06 [Music] 58:52 you